Stout & Porter
[the missing source references]

The Weakest goeth to the Wall. 1600
G. P.,

for I was an Ale-draper

my honorable humour to learne languages and see fashions, has lost me many a stout draught of strong Ale,

stout draught of strong ale 1614


The Beggars' Bush
Francis Beaumont and John Fletcher.
Francis Beaumont 1584 - 1616
John Fletcher 1597 - 1625
After the Death of Beaumont.
Performed for the Court at Whitehall Palace by the King's Men.

A village near Bruges.
Enter tree or four Boors.

1 Boor. English beer, hostess, English beer by th' barrel!
2 Boor. Stark beer, boy, stout and strong beer!
So, sit down, lads,
And drink me upsey-Dutch! Frolic, and fear not.

[Boor = Boer (Dutch) = Farmer]
[drink me upsey = drink me omver (Dutch) = try & drink more than me]
[English beer was a beer-style on the continent 15 - 17th century]



Amsterdam and her other Hollander sisters put out to sea
by Van Trump, Van Dunck, & Van Dumpe. Or, A true description of those so called Hoghens Mogens,: set out to the life, with the manners of their quagmire bog, and other speciall varieties touching their unmannerly manners, and base ingratitude to our English nation, from their shels of beggery to their now present pride. Penn'd to give our nation timely notice of their subtile frauds and delusions.
Printed for Richard Harper, in Smithfield, near the Hospitall Gate,

[stout beer]


Angliae Notitia
Or, The Present State of England
Together with Divers Reflections Upon the Antient State Thereof
Volume 2 (Google eBoek)
Edward Chamberlayne
T. N.,

As also by the quantity of Beer drank in London in a year, which to all Forreigners will be incredible, for in the year 1667 according to exact computation, there was brewed within that year in London, four hundred fifty two thousand five hundred sixty (452.560) barrels of strong Beer, sold at 12 s. 6 d. the Barrel, and five hundred and eighty thousand four hundred twenty one (580.421) Barrels of Ale, sold at 16 s. the Barrel, and four hundred eighty nine thousand seven hundred ninety seven (489.797) Barrels of Table Beer, or small Beer, sold at 6 s. 6 d. the Barrel. and now since the Pestilence and the Fire, that this City is again fully peopled, there is much more Liquor brewed.

[Strong Beer, Ale and Table Beer, or small Beer]

Angliae Notitia-p192 1671


Husbandry and trade improv'd
Richard Bradley


Friday, September 22. 1693. Num. LX
Why isinglass clarifies.
The reason for clarifying with Isinglass, I take to be the same as with whites of eggs, by its clamminess it gathers together all the gross parts.


An historical and geographical account of the province and country of Pensilvania, and of West-New Jersey in America
Gabriel Thomas
London, Printed for, and Sold by A. Baldwin, at the Oxon Arms in Warwick-Lane,

The Brewers sell such Beer as is equal in Strength to that in London, half Ale and half Stout for Fifteen Shillings per Barrel

stout 1698


Directions for Brewing Malt Liquors
Shewing, what Care is to be Taken in the Choice of Water, Malt, and Hops. And in what Proportions They are to be Mixed, and how Boyled and Fermented, for Making the Best March, Or October Beer, Strong Ale, &c. In a Method Never Before Publish'd. Useful for All Such as are Curious in Malt Liquors
By a Countrey Gentleman.
Printed for J. Nutt,
1 near Stationers-Hall 2

They who are Curious in Malt Drinks, as it is fit every one shou’d be that uses ‘em, (unless their Circumstances be such that they must be contented with what they find) generally make out all their first Wort alone into Ale or Strong Beer. Ale is the only word used in the North of England for strong Malt Drink: And was likely the only strong Drink out fore-fathers made of Malt.

Indeed before the use of Hops, which began in England about the Year 1540, as I take it, it was hard to Brew Drink, which wou’d be Fine before it was Eagar. All good Ale is now made with some small mixture of Hops, tho’ not in so great Quantity as Strong Beer, design’d for longer keeping: And is for that purpose usually Brewed in March or October.

[No Stout or Porter mentioned]


Dictionnaire royal françois et anglois, et anglois et françois.
Le françois tiré des dictionnaires de Richelet, Furetiere, Tachard, de l'Académie Française, & des remarques de Vaugelas, Menage & Bouhours. Divisé en deux parties. Par Monsieur Boyer
Abel Boyer
chez Meyndert Uytwerf,

Stout (or strong) Ale.

stout ale 1702


A brief history of trade in England
By one who hath been an Exporter and Importer above forty years, and is now considerably Interested both in Trade and Land.
LONDON Printed, and Sold by E. Baldwin, at the Oxford-Arms in Warwick-Lane,

and that he drinks one quart of double Beer, or Stout, consumes near a pound of Bread

double beer or stout 1702


The Diverting Muse
Or, the Universal Medly
Written by a Society of Merry Gentlemen, for the Entertainment of the Town.
(Google eBoek)
Society of Merry Gentlemen
Printed, And Sold by B. Bragge, at the Raven in Pater-noster-row,

O Give me, kind Bacchus, thou God of the Vine,
Not a Pipe or a Tun, but an Ocean of Wine,
And a Ship that's well Mann'd with such rare
                                           (merry Fellows,
That ne'er forsook Tavern for Porterly Ale-house;

[Enter Gossip with the Drink]
-Here's Ale, you merry Crack,
As strong as Mum, and clear as Sack;

See how it smiles, no Bottle Drink
Can bear a better Head, I think

For 'tis not fit tkat Men shou'd hear
What Women tattle o're their Beer;
'Tis gone Efaith, I'll swear 'tis good,
I feel't already in my Blood.
This Nan I vow's an honest Trout,
The Gypsy has not spar'd the Stout,
'Tis soft and strong, I really think
No Duches can have better Drink.

The Diverting Muse in PDF


The Young Mans Companion
or, Arithmetick made Easie
(Google eBoek)
William Mather
Printed for S. Clark,

Stout Ale or Beer three Quarts



A scheme for advancing and improving the revenue of excise upon Beer, Ale, and other Branches
(Google eBoek)
By E. Denneston, Gent
Printed for Bernard Lintott, at he Cross-Keys, between the Two Temple Gates.

And in order to prevent all Frauds in Brewhouses, this Scheme is proposed

That is to say of every Gile of Strong Beer, Strong Ale, as also entire Giles of Small Beer, as well as the Small Beer after Strong Beer and Strong Ale; and that every such Entry be made of every particular Gile

Moreover, every Entry shall be sign'd by the Master-Brewer, Workman-Brewer, or House-Clerck, in presence of him that makes the Entry; and in case any Encrease shall be made, in the several Giles of Beer, Ale, and Small Beer so entered, the Person who brings the Entry shall be imprisoned, for the first Fault     Months, for the second    Years, and for the third the Master-Brewer to be suspended from Brewing      Months, &c. which is agreeble to the Practise in Holland


British curiosities in nature and art
exhibiting an account of natural and artificial rareties, both ancient and modern, intermixt with historical and geographical passages

A little farther Eastward, at St. Catharine's the Brewhouse of Sir John Parsons, are not unworthy of a Strangers View, there being one Vessel in the latter, which containeth 155 Barrels of Beer.

Red Lion John Parsons large vessel 1713


A Vade Mecum for Malt-Worms;
or a Guide to Good Fellows.
Being a Description of the Manners and Customs of the most Eminent Public Houses, in and about the Cities of London and Westminster.
With a Hint on the Props (or Principal Customers) of each House.
In a Method so plain that any Thirsty Person (of the meanest Capacity) may easily find the nearest Way from one house to another.
Illustrated with proper Cuts.
Dedicated to the Brewers.
Printed and Sold by T. Bickerton, at the Crown,
in Paternoster-Row.
[Undated and anonymous - perhaps 1715, attributed to Edward Ward 1667-1731]

malt worms title-page

By St. Paul's Chapter House.

From the quick Vent of Drinks expos'd to Sale,
Their Beer, their Stout, their Gill, their Oxford Ale;

stout-malt-worms-st pauls chapter house

In St. Martin's le Grand.

Hither for Stout, and Stale Beer, daily stroll,
Matrons from the Virtuous Black Mary's Hole;


(35 )
Holborn Hill.

if the Man's High-Church, that looks about
For the best Mild, or Stale-Beer, Ale or Stout


Hatton Garden.

Other Houses of Note.

Two Brewers, honest Jack Statham, Laudable Drink!
Cooper's-Arms, Corner of Peters-street, famous Stout.



A Guide for Malt-Worms;
The Second Part.
Being a Description of the Manners and Customs of the most Eminent Public Houses, in and about the Cities of London and Westminster.
With a Hint on the Props (or Principal Customers) of each House.
In a Method so plain that any Thirsty Person (of the meanest Capacity) may easily find the nearest Way from one house to another.
Done by several HANDS.
Illustrated with proper Cuts.
Sold by T. Bickerton in Pater-noster-Row.
[Undated and anonymous - perhaps 1720, Several hands]



As, for the Liquors, pale, or stout, or plain,
No better can be found in all the Lane,


[Stout and other beers mentioned - no Porter]


The Dramatick Works
of John Dryden, Esq;
in Six Volumes.
Printed for J. Tonson: And sold by J. Brotherton and W. Meadows,
at the Black Bull in Cornhill.

Bib.  Well, in short, I was drunk; damnably drunk with Ale; great Hogen Mogen bloody Ale: I was porterly drunk, and that I hate of all things in Nature.
Burr, Rising.]  And of all things in Nature I love it best.
Bib.  Art thou there I'faith; and why, old Boy?
Burr.  Because when I am porterly drunk, I can carry my self.


The Great Law of Subordination consider'd
OR, THE Insolence and Unsufferable Behaviour of SERVANTS in England
Anonymous, attributed to Daniel Defoe.

I have often disguiss'd myself for this purpose, and mingl'd in among the Mob of such Fellows as those, who we call Footmen; I have convers'd with them over a Mug of Porter, as they call their Alehouse Beer and Ale

porter defoe 1724


A New Treatise on Liquors
Wherein the Use and Abuse of Wine, Malt-drinks, Water, &c. are Particularly Consider'd, in Many Diseases, Constitutions, and Ages: With the Proper Manner of Using Them, Hot, Or Cold, Either as Physick, Diet, Or Bath. Containing Plain and Easy Rules for the Preservation of Health, and the Attainment of Long Life. The Whole Being a Full Determination of All that Hath Lately Been Publish'd on Thos Subjects: Tho' Chiefly Contrary to the Opinions of Dr. Cheyne, Dr. Rouse, Dr. Short, Lommius, Van Der Heyden, Dr. Hancocke, Mr. Smith and Others
James Sedgwick, George Cheyne
Charles Rivington,

That hopping of Drink is necessary, is evident from this: That witout Hops, we must either drink our Beer and Ale new, ropy, and half fermented; or else old and stale; both which are very prejudicial to our Health: Nay hopp'd Drink is beneficial, even in the Stone; is a grateful Bitter; a good Antidote against both Stone and Gout; according to the Observations of Dr. Sydenham, and Waldschimdt.

[Stout nor Porter]


Or, The Secret History of the University of Oxford
In Several Essays. To which are Added, Remarks Upon a Late Book, Entitled, University Education, by R. Newton, D.D. Principal of Hart-Hall
(Google eBoek)
Nicholas Amhurst
R. Francklin, under Tom's Coffee-House, in Russel-Street, Covent-Garden.,

that we had rather dine at a cook's shop upon beef, cabbage and porter

beef cabbage and porter 1726


A Foreign View of England in the Reigns of George I. & George II.: The Letters of Monsieur César de Saussure to His Family
César de Saussure
Edited by Madame Van Muyden
E. P. Dutton,

Cesar de Saussure

Original letter:
London, 29 October


Would you believe it, though water is to be
had in abundance in London, and of fairly good
quality, absolutely none is drunk? The lower
classes, even the paupers, do not know what it is


to quench their thirst with water. In this country
nothing but beer is drunk, and it is made in several
qualities. Small beer is what everyone drinks
when thirsty; it is used even in the best houses,
and costs only a penny the pot. Another kind of
beer is called porter, meaning carrier, because the
greater quantity of this beer is consumed by the
working classes. It is a thick and strong beverage,
and the effect it produces, if drunk in excess, is the
same as that of wine; this porter costs threepence
the pot. In London there are a number of ale-
houses, where nothing but this sort of beer is sold.
There are again other clear beers, called ale, some
of these being as transparent as fine old wine,
foreigners often mistaking them at first sight for
the latter. The prices of ales differ, some costing
one shilling the bottle, and others as much as
eighteenpence. It is said that more grain is con-
sumed in England for making beer than for making


Vinum Britannicum
or, an Essay on the properties and effects of malt liquors
With a plain mechanical account, how they are serviceable or disserviceable to human bodies.
By a physician in the country.
[Anonymous, attributed to Thomas Short]
printed for D. Midwinter, at the Three Crowns in St. Paul's Church-Yard; and M. Bryson, bookseller in Newcastle on Tine, M DCC XXVII.

[Thomas Short’s essay Vinum Britannicum (1726), which is perhaps the last English essay to be written on drink before distilled spirits, and gin in particular, became the dominating obsession of all commentators on the subject, illustrates this clearly. Short, a prolific and combative medical commentator, set out to attack the widespread elitist tendency to assert the superiority of wine over beer. Whatever 'our virtuosi' may have to say about beer, Short wrote, 'our senators will be guided by experience: which informs them how little reason Britain has to envy other nations their liquors, or grow weary of its own.' What followed was a celebration of beer as not just traditional, honest and reliable, but a source of vigour, good health, industry and even military strength. Beer, Short argued, was best for the British because it suited their climate, their physiology, their constitutions and their character. The celebration of beer as vigorous, healthy and British would become more pronounced as the gin craze proceeded.]
[James Nicholls on Vinum Britannicum, 2008]


A Guide for Brewing the Finest Malt-liquors
A Guide to Gentlemen, Farmers, and House-keepers, for Brewing the Finest Malt-liquors,
Much Better and Cheaper Than Hitherto Known: Shewing, what Care is to be Taken in the Choice of Water, Malt, and Hops, and in what Proportions They are to be Mixed, Boiled and Fermented, for Making the Best March Or October-beer, Strong-ale, &c.
Also, Particular Directions for the Right Managing All Brewing Utensils. (Google eBoek)
The Fifth Edition.
By a Country Geentleman.
Printed for S. Fuller,

[No Stout or Porter mentioned]


The London and Country Brewer
By a Person formerly concerned in a Common Brewhouse at London, but for twenty Years past has resided in the Country
The Second Edition, Corrected.
Printed for Messieurs Fox, at the Half-Moon and Seven Stars,
in Westminster-Hall.
[Anonymous, attributed to William Ellis]

VIII.  Of the London Method of Brewing Stout, But-Beer, Pale and Brown
[A But of beer was equal to half a tun, two hogsheads, three barrels, 108 imperial gallons or 491 litres.]


Of Grinding Malts.

Malt will be the easier and more freely mix with the water, and then will
cause the wort to run thick, and therefore the Malt must be only just
broke in the Mill, to make it emit its Spirit gradually, and incorporate
its flower with the water in such a manner that first a stout Beer, then
an Ale, and afterwards a small Beer may be had at one and the same
Brewing, and the wort run off fine and clear to the last.


The London Method of Brewing.

In a great Brewhouse that I was concern'd in, they wetted or used a
considerable Quantity of Malt in one Week in Brewing Stout-beer, common
Butt-beer, Ale and small Beer, for which purpose they have River and Well
Waters, which they take in several degrees of Heat, as the Malt, Goods and
Grain are in a condition to receive them, and according to the Practice
there I shall relate the following Particulars, viz.

For Stout Butt Beer.

[Stout and other beers mentioned - no Porter]


An Impartial Enquiry Into the Present State of the British Distillery
Plainly Demonstrating the Evil Consequences of Imposing Any Additional Duties on British Spirits.
(Google eBoek)
J. Roberts,

and did not, as usual, Brew any Quantities of Beer for Staling



The London and Country Brewer
By a Person formerly concerned in a Common Brewhouse at London, but for Twenty Years past has resided in the Country.
The Third Edition, Corrected.
Printed for J. and J. Fox, at the Half-Moon and Seven Stars,
in Westminster-Hall; and at their Shop at Tunbridge-Wells, during the Summer Season.
[Anonymous, attributed to William Ellis]

VIII. Of the London Method of Brewing Stout, Butt-Beer, Pale and Brown Ales.
[A butt of beer was equal to half a tun, two hogsheads, three barrels, 108 imperial gallons or 491 litres.]

LondonCountryBrewer 1737

The nature of the Barley-Corn
At Bridport in Dorsetshire, I knew an Inn-keeper use half Pale and half Brown Malt for brewing his Butt-beers, that proved to my Palate the best I ever drank on the Road, which I think may be accounted for, in that the Pale being the slackest, and the Brown the hardest dryed, must produce a mellow good Drink, by the help of a requisite Age, that will reduce those extreams to a proper Quality.

[Half Pale and half Brown Malt for brewing Butt-beers]

The London Method of Brewing.

For Stout Butt Beer.
This is the strongest Butt-Beer that is brewed from brown Malt, and often sold for forty Shillings the Barrel, or six Pound the Butt out of the Wholesale Cellars:

For Stout-Beer, is commonly drawn one Barrel off a Quarter of Malt, and sold for thirty Shillings per Barrel from the Tun.

The third and last part:
Of Brewing Butt Beer, &c.
Of Brewing Butt Beer called Porter.

For making this Drink with a good Body, they commonly draw off a Barrel and a Firkin, or a Hogshead, from a Quarter of brown Malt, and sell it for Twenty-three Shillings, per Barrel. But this is govern'd by the Price of the Customer; so that two or three Sorts are sometimes carried out from one Brewing,

For I know some Brewers that are seldom at a greater Expence than Elder-berries and Isinglass for their brown Drinks, and but little otherwise for their Pale;

[Isinglass = a substance obtained from the dried swim bladders of fish. It is a form of collagen used mainly for the clarification or fining of wine and beer.]


The Gentleman's Magazine
Volume 7 (Google eBoek)
John Nichols
A. Dodd and A. Smith,
[Anonymous, Astrophy]


Whether alone from soft melasses boil'd,
Or brew'd with hop, by sots plain porter stil'd;
Or in coarse bottle, or decanter clean,
Wrought plate, or homely jack, or pewter mean,

The pale-hu'd Dorchester; the Stout nut-brown.
Beer differenc'd with the Butt's distinguish'd name,
And Purl, supporter of the long-liv'd dame.


plain porter stil-d-1737


The Universal Etymological English Dictionary
(Google eBoek)
N. Bailey

THREE Threads, half common Ale, and half Stout or double Beer.



Beef and Butt Beer, Against Mum and Pumpernickle
H-N-R Scrubs; Or, A Bumper to Old England
A drinking song
printed for B.C. in Paternoster-row,

In good King G - - -'s golden Days,
Whoe'er advis'd the King, Sir,
To give to H- - - r the Bays,
Deserv'd a hempen String, Sir.
For this is true, I will maintain,
Give H - - - r away, Sir,
Or whatsoever K - - -g shall reign,
Will ne'er have a happy Day,

Old England has been always thought
The Land og Milk and Honey;
And H - - - r not worth a Groat,
Till fill'd with English Money.
From whence this Truth I will mantain,
Give, &c.

Who that drinks Calvert's Butt so clear,
For muddy Mum wou'd stickle?
Or to our English Beef prefer
Sour Grout and * Pumpernickle?
When who will not this Truth mantain,
Give, &c.

'Tis England's Boys that humble France,
And always have defy'd her:
Bur H - - - r wou'd ne'er advance,
Unless to run, or hide her.
When who will not this Truth mantain,
Give, &c.

Bold Stair in Smoke and Thunder see,
His half-starv'd Britons rallies;
While Ilton safe behind a Tree
Preserves our well-fed Allies.
Then this is true, I will maintain,
Give, &c.

They'll never quit their Friends an Inch,
While you have Coin or Cattle;
Unless you want 'em at a Pich,
For Help in Day of Battle.
Then who this Truth will not maintain,

Since England never long can bear
Alone to pay and fight, Sir,
That H - - - ns the Prize should wear,
Who only run and shite, Sir.
That they may soon be split in twain,
Let all the People pray, Sir,
To crown K---g G---ge's golden Reign
With many a happy Day, Sir

* German brown Bread

(H-N-R = Hannover)



A Compleat Body of Husbandry
Volume 3 (Google eBoek)
Thomas Hale

Four kinds of beer are brewed in London, stout, common butt-beer, ale, and small beer. Stout is the strongest beer, brewed from brown malt; and is sold for forty shillings the barrel, or six pound the butt, from the wholesale cellar.


[Stout and other beers mentioned - no Porter]


An Essay on Brewing
With a View of Establishing the Principles of the Art (Google eBoek)
Michael Combrune
Printed for R. and J. Dodsley, in Pall-Mall.

Isinglass, a preparation from a fish call'd Huso, somewhat bigger than a Sturgeon; a solution of which, in stale beer, is us'd to fine or precipitate beers: it is imported from Russia by the Dutch, and from them to us.


Of the Thermometer.

A Table of the different Degrees of the Dryness of Malt, with the Colour occasioned by each Degree.

A Table, shewing the Age Beers will require, when properly brewed from Malt of different Degrees of Dryness.


[Combrune distinguishes 13 types of malt ranging from white to black]
[No Stout or Porter mentioned]


The London and Country Brewer
The Seventh Edition.
William Ellis
(Google eBoek)
T. Astley,

p.221 - 222
Of Brewing Butt-Beer, called Porter.

The first Wort is allowed an Hour and a Half's Boiling with three Pounds of Hops to each Barrel.


The London Chronicle
Volume 8
William Fuller Maitland
[Anonymous, Obadiah Poundage]

When the business of the day is over, with pleasure I set myself down to read your paper; from whence, Mr. Chronicle, I have contracted for you no small regard; and this is the reason why I trouble you, in preference to any other, for the publishing of this Epistle.
I believe I may say I am the oldest acting out-door clerk, at present, in the brewery.

The labouring people, porters, &c. found its utility; from whence came its appellation of porter, or Entire Butt.

Sir, your very humble servant,
Obadiah Poundage

[This story has been reprinted endlessly in several variations since 1760 untill the present time]


The Gentleman's Magazine
and Historical Chronicle.
Volume XXX.
For the YEAR M.DCC.LX.
Volume 30 (Google eBoek)
F. Jeffries,

History of the London Brewery, from from the Beginning of King William's Reign to the present Time

The labouring people, porters, &c. found its utility; from whence came its appellation of porter, or Entire Butt.

The Gentleman's Magazine p.527-528 in PDF


The Annual Register
Or, A View of the History, Politics, and Literature for the Year 1760
(Google eBoek)
J. Dodsley,

History of the London brewery, from the beginning of King Williams's reign to the present time.

The labouring people, porters, &c. found its utility; from whence came its appellation of porter, or entire butt.



Brown Beer: a poem
By John Peake, victualler,
of Stoke-Newington

To beg for a cooling drop of minor beer;
But 'tis too small, it shakes his very life,
And Porter must renew his dying strife;

Then rich ripe Porter, born on British soil,
Renews their strength, and soon renews their toil;

Download Brown Beer: a poem in PDF


(Google eBoek)

The Theory and Practise of Brewing, by Michael Combrune, Brewer.

An Essay on Brewing, by the Author of this treatise, was noticed in out Review, vol. XX. p. 277. where the total omission of practical rules for brewing was mentioned. In the present work these are supplied; the former essay composing the first part of it undet the title of The Theory: to which is now added a second, containing, The Practice of Brewing.

A Brewing for Porter, or Brown Strong Beer, computed for 40 degrees of heat in the air.


Brown Beer, a Poem



The London magazine
or, Gentleman's monthly intelligencer
Volume 33 (Google eBoek)
C. Ackers,

from the price of porter being raised one-seventh, more foreign spirits are drank, and a great number of private persons brew for themselves without paying any beer or ale duty; so that the tax being bore by a lesser number of people, becomes more and more burdensome.

But when we see men of every business, or of no business, become brewers, and in London we find porter-beer of such a diversity in taste, colour, and fineness



Every Man His Own Brewer
Or, A Compendium of the English Brewery
(Google eBoek)
Samuel Child author,

as the London brewery supply at least one eigth of the people with the favorite brown drink called Porter

The Method of Brewing London Brown Beer under the name of Porter.


It is usual among the great brewers to blend their old and new beers together


The Complete English Brewer
By George Watkins,
Who has practised Brewing, in all its Branches, upwards of Thirty Years.
Printed for J. Cooke,

Of the Ingredients for Porter.

All beer is made of malt, hops and water; and the particular additions used to the porter are only two, isinglass, and the juice of elder-berries.


What is thought by the common people to be ox's blood, is nothing but the elder-juice before mentioned; and the other ingredient is only beaten isinglas, well dissolved, and perfectly fine.
[Isinglass is a substance obtained from the dried swim bladders of fish. It is a form of collagen used mainly for the clarification or fining of wine and beer.]

There would be no difficulty in any person's having this made at a common-maltsters; nor indeed is there any necessity even for the trouble, since it is sold ready made, under the name of Porter-malt, in many places.

Another advantage the great brewers have, which private families cannot, this is an opportunity of correcting the faults of one butt of their porter, by means of another.


Instructions to a Celebrated Laureate
Alias The Progress of Curiosity
Alias A Birth-day Ode
Alias Mr. Whitbread's Brewhouse
(Google eBoek)
Peter Pindar (John Wolcot)
G. Kearsley,

His Majesty's love for the arts and sciences even in quadrupeds
His resolution to know the history of brewing beer

His Majesty maketh laudable enquiry about porter

Now did the King for other beers enquire,
For Calvert's, Jordan's, Thrale's entire-
And after talking of these diff'rent beers,
Ask'd Whitebread if his porter equall'd theirs?

This was a puzzling disagreeing question,
Grating like arsenic on his host's digestion;
A kind of question to the man of Cask
That not ev'n Solomon himself would ask.

'Is this an action, Peter? this a deed
'To raise a Monarch to the sky?
'Tubs, porter, pumps, vats, all the Whitbread throng,
'Rare things to figure in the Muse's song!'

Thomas, I here protest I want no quarrels
On Kings and Brewers, porter, pumps, vats and barrels-
Far from the dove-like Peter be such strife!
But this I tell thee, Thomas, for a fact-
Thy Caesar never did an act
More wise, more glorious, in his life.


Pantologia: A New Cyclopaedia
Comprehending a Complete Series of Essays, Treatises, and Systems
Illustrated with Engravings (Google eBoek)
John Mason Good, Olinthus Gregory, Newton Bosworth

Porter brewery



The Public and Domestic Life of His Late Most Gracious Majesty, George the Third
Comprising the Most Eventful and Important Period
in the Annals of British History, Volume 1
(Google eBoek)
Edward Holt
Printed for Sherwood, Neely, and Jones,


the King and Queen ... went to see Mr. Whitbread's porter brewery


Lettres et voyages de monsr César de Saussure
en Allemagne, en Hollande et en Angleterre, 1725-1729
Avec un introd. de B. van Muyden
by Saussure, Cesar de,

Le Penny-post. Assurance contre l'encendie. Les fontaines de Londres. Ateliers de construction de machines. Propreté des Anglais. Bière anglaise. Tavernes de débits de vin. Cabarets.

Une autre espèce est connue sous le nom de porter, c’est-à-dire porteur, parce que les porteurs ou portefaix, & tout le petit peuple en boit beaucoup; c’est une bière épaisse & forte, qui fait le même effet que le vin, quand on en boit une certaine quantité

lettresetvoyages p163 1903


The Times
Food and Drink
Aaron Rogan
November 1

It’s official — Guinness is now good for vegans.
The company is to stop using fish bladders in its filters, so for the first time in its 256-year history it will be offering a vegan friendly pint of stout.

Vegans and strict vegetarians have long petitioned the St James’s Gate Brewery to stop using isinglass, which is a by-product of the fishing industry, to remove extra yeast from the stout.

By Danny Lewis
November 5,

Guinness has brewed its iconic stout for 256 years. But this week, the Irish beermaker announced a big change to its signature brew: by the end of 2016, the beer will no longer be made with isinglass, a gelatin-like substance made from dried fish bladders.


By Alastair Sooke
31 January
How to discover a masterpiece

Isinglass used in restoring Brueghels The Wedding Dance.
Part of a larger tekst by Alastair Sooke, Art Critic and Columnist of The Daily Telegraph.
Elizabeth Holford is an accredited painting conservator who has worked with museums for more than four decades.

Peeling away the layers

The painting had to be X-rayed to survey how badly it was damaged. Then Holford cleaned its surface with saliva (“It’s full of enzymes and surprisingly efficient,” she says). After that she used isopropyl alcohol to remove the uppermost layer of varnish, which was, she says, up to 100 years old (the chemistry is such that this runs little risk of damaging the painting). Next, underlying, older varnish was taken off with acetone, which also gently removed several clumsy ‘retouchings’ by earlier conservators.

Eventually, after around three weeks’ work, like an archaeologist digging down through stratified layers of sediment, she had revealed the painting in its original state: the 17th Century brushwork of Brueghel the Younger. “It was absolutely terrific,” she says. “The brushwork was wonderful – so smart and exciting.”

However, some of the paint had flaked off – and, in several places, bare wood was visible. So, Holford secured areas of vulnerable paint using an adhesive called isinglass. “It comes from the swim bladder of the sturgeon,” she says. “I get it from the Caspian Sea because it’s a by-product of the caviar industry.” Then, the bare patches had to be filled in with gesso (a mix of glue and chalk used as a “ground” or preparatory base layer in a painting) and subtly modelled so that they didn’t appear, as Holford puts it, “horribly flat” – or obviously modern.